Hypervisors in Embedded Systems: Applications and Architectures

Credits: Embedded World Conference 2018, ISBN 978-3-645-50173-6, http://www.embedded-world.eu

Abstract — As microprocessor architectures have evolved with direct hardware support for virtualization, hypervisor software has become not just practical in embedded systems, but present in many commercials applications. This paper discusses embedded systems use cases for hypervisors, including their use in workload consolidation and security applications.


Hypervisors are a type of operating system software that allows multiple traditional operating systems to run on the same microprocessor [1]. They were originally introduced in traditional IT data centers to solve workload balancing and system utilization challenges. Initial hypervisors required changes to the guest OS to compensate for a lack of hardware support for the isolation required between guest operating systems. As microprocessor architectures have evolved with direct hardware support for virtualization, hypervisors have become not just practical in embedded systems, but are present in deployed applications [2]. Hypervisors are here to stay in embedded systems. This paper discusses embedded systems use cases for hypervisors, including their use in workload consolidation and security applications.

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Hardware Enforced Virtualization Of Llinux Home Gateways

Credits: Embedded World Conference 2018, ISBN 978-3-645-50173-6, http://www.embedded-world.eu

Abstract — Trust and security are central to embedded computing as network devices – such as home gateways – have become the first line of defense for the IoT devices connected to the smart home. In this paper, we present a virtualization-based approach to securing home gateway while preserving functionality and performance.


Trust and security have never been more important to the embedded computing world, especially when it comes to network devices, such as home gateways, that are the first line of defense for the IoT devices connected to the smart home [4]. In 2017, a plethora of stories have confirmed that these devices are fundamentally broken from a security perspective.

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When IoT Attacks – The End of the World as We Know It?

Excerpts of my interview with Phil Muncaster @philmuncaster

InfoSecurity Magazine Q4/2017, 4 October 2017


Focus on the Firmware

A cursory look at OWASP’s IoT Security Guidance will highlight just how many elements in the IoT ecosystem could be exploited. Among others, these include the web interface, network, transport encryption layer, mobile app and device firmware. The latter is a key area of focus for the prpl Foundation, a non-profit which is trying to coral the industry into taking a new hardware-based approach to IoT security. Cesare Garlati, chief security strategist, claims that hackers could exploit IoT chip firmware to re-flash the image, allowing them to reboot and execute arbitrary code. “The issue with this kind of attack is that it gives the hackers complete control of the device and it is persistent; it can’t be undone via a system reboot, for example”, he tells Infosecurity. The answer is to ensure IoT systems will only boot up if the first piece of software to execute is cryptographically signed by a trusted entity. “It needs to match on the other side with a public key or certificate which is hard-coded into the device, anchoring the ‘Root of Trust’ into the hardware to make it tamper proof ”, says Garlati.

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Virtualization, silicon, and open source are conspiring to secure the Internet of Things

My chat with Brandon Lewis, Technology Editor at  IoT Design, highlighting prpl’s push around roots-of-trust, virtualization, open source, and interoperability in order to secure the Internet of Things (IoT).

Credits: Brandon Lewis, IoT Design, January 28, 2016 @TechieLew

security-guidance-coverThe prpl Foundation is known for open source tools and frameworks like OpenWrt and QEMU, but has recently ventured into the security domain with a new Security prpl Engineering Group (PEG) and the “Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Embedded Computing” document, not to mention wooing you away from your role at security giant Trend Micro. What can you tell us about the drivers behind these moves?

Cesare: One way to look at it is a supply-and-demand schema. On the demand side, according to Gartner, the security market was worth $77 billion in 2015 and it’s going to grow much faster. One strong demand-side driver is the need for stronger security, because industry is not doing a very good job of it – and when I say industry I mean from silicon to software to services – and all of the spending is not resulting in better information security. Read more of this post

The Journey to a Secure Internet of Things Starts Here

IoT Security Guidance

As the Internet of Things finds its way into ever more critical environments – from cars, to airlines to hospitals – the potentially life-threatening cyber security implications must be addressed. Over the past few months, real world examples have emerged showing how proprietary connected systems relying on outdated notions of ‘security-by-obscurity’ can in fact be reverse engineered and chip firmware modified to give hackers complete remote control. The consequences could be deadly.

A new approach is needed to secure connected devices, which is exactly what the prpl Foundation is proposing in its new document: Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Embedded Computing. It lays out a vision for a new hardware-led approach based on open source and interoperable standards. At its core is a secure boot enabled by a “root of trust” anchored in the silicon, and hardware-based virtualization to restrict lateral movement.

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How to Fix the Internet of Broken Things

iot-securityThe Internet of Things is already permeating every part of our lives – from healthcare to aviation, automobiles to telecoms. But its security is fundamentally broken. In my previous blog I’ve shown how vulnerabilities found by security researchers could have catastrophic consequences for end users. This isn’t just about data breaches and reputational damage anymore – lives are quite literally on the line. The challenges are many: most vendors operate under the misapprehension that security-by-obscurity will do – and lobby for laws preventing the disclosure of vulnerabilities; a lack of security subject matter expertise creates major vulnerabilities; firmware can too easily be modified; and a lack of separation on the device opens up further avenues for attackers.

But there is something we as an industry can do about it – if we take a new hardware-led approach. This is all about creating an open security framework built on interoperable standards; one which will enable a “root of trust” thanks to secure boot capabilities, and restrict lateral movement with hardware-based virtualization.

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The Security Challenges Threatening to Tear the Internet of Things Apart

IoT SecurityThe Internet of Things (IoT) has the power to transform our lives, making us more productive at work, and happier and safer at home. But it’s also developing at such a rate that it threatens to outstrip our ability to adequately secure it. A piece of software hasn’t been written yet that didn’t contain mistakes – after all, we’re only human. But with non-security experts designing and building connected systems the risks grow ever greater. So what can be done?

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Securing The Internet of (broken) Things: A Matter of Life and Death

Securing the Internet of broken thingsIf you’re like me you’ll probably be getting desensitized by now to the ever-lengthening list of data breach headlines which have saturated the news for the past 24 months or more. Targeted attacks, Advanced Persistent Threats and the like usually end up in the capture of sensitive IP, customer information or trade secrets. The result? Economic damage, board level sackings and a heap of bad publicity for the breached organization. But that’s usually where it ends.

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