Hypervisors in Embedded Systems: Applications and Architectures

Credits: Embedded World Conference 2018, ISBN 978-3-645-50173-6, http://www.embedded-world.eu

Abstract — As microprocessor architectures have evolved with direct hardware support for virtualization, hypervisor software has become not just practical in embedded systems, but present in many commercials applications. This paper discusses embedded systems use cases for hypervisors, including their use in workload consolidation and security applications.

Introduction

Hypervisors are a type of operating system software that allows multiple traditional operating systems to run on the same microprocessor [1]. They were originally introduced in traditional IT data centers to solve workload balancing and system utilization challenges. Initial hypervisors required changes to the guest OS to compensate for a lack of hardware support for the isolation required between guest operating systems. As microprocessor architectures have evolved with direct hardware support for virtualization, hypervisors have become not just practical in embedded systems, but are present in deployed applications [2]. Hypervisors are here to stay in embedded systems. This paper discusses embedded systems use cases for hypervisors, including their use in workload consolidation and security applications.

Read more of this post

Physically Unclonable Functions – A new way to establish trust in silicon

Credits: Embedded World Conference 2018, ISBN 978-3-645-50173-6, http://www.embedded-world.eu

Download full paper https://bringyourownit.files.wordpress.com/2018/03/puf-physically-unclonable-functions-a-new-way-to-establish-trust-in-silicon.pdf

Abstract — As billions of devices connect to the Internet, security and trust become crucial. This paper proposes a new approach to provisioning a root of trust for every device, based on Physical Unclonable Functions (PUFs). PUFs rely on the unique differences of each silicon component introduced by minute and uncontrollable variations in the manufacturing process. These variations are virtually impossible to replicate. As such they provide an effective way to uniquely identify each device and to extract cryptographic keys used for strong device authentication. This paper describes cutting-edge real-world applications of SRAM PUF technology applied to a hardware security subsystem, as a mechanism to secure software on a microcontroller and as a basis for authenticating IoT devices to the cloud.

Introduction

The Internet of Things already connects billions of devices and this number is expected to grow into the tens of millions in the coming years [5]. To build a trustworthy Internet of Things, it is essential for these devices to have a secure and reliable method to connect to services in the cloud and to each other. A trustworthy authentication mechanism based on device-unique secret keys is needed such that devices can be uniquely identified and such that the source and authenticity of exchanged data can be verified.

In a world of billions of interconnected devices, trust implies more than sound cryptography and resilient transmission protocols: it extends to the device itself, including its hardware and software. The main electronic components within a device must have a well-protected security boundary where cryptographic algorithms can be executed in a secure manner, protected from physical tampering, network attacks or malicious application code [18]. In addition, the cryptographic keys at the basis of the security subsystem must be securely stored and accessible only by the security subsystem itself. The actual hardware and software of the security subsystem must be trusted and free of known vulnerabilities. This can be achieved by reducing the size of the code to minimize the statistical probability of errors, by properly testing and verifying its functionality, by making it unmodifiable for regular users and applications (e.g. part of secure boot or in ROM) but updateable upon proper authentication (to mitigate eventual vulnerabilities before they are exploited on a large scale). Ideally, an attestation mechanism is integrated with the authentication mechanism to assure code integrity at the moment of connecting to a cloud service [3].

Read more of this post

Hardware Enforced Virtualization Of Llinux Home Gateways

Credits: Embedded World Conference 2018, ISBN 978-3-645-50173-6, http://www.embedded-world.eu

Abstract — Trust and security are central to embedded computing as network devices – such as home gateways – have become the first line of defense for the IoT devices connected to the smart home. In this paper, we present a virtualization-based approach to securing home gateway while preserving functionality and performance.

Introduction

Trust and security have never been more important to the embedded computing world, especially when it comes to network devices, such as home gateways, that are the first line of defense for the IoT devices connected to the smart home [4]. In 2017, a plethora of stories have confirmed that these devices are fundamentally broken from a security perspective.

Read more of this post

When IoT Attacks – The End of the World as We Know It?

Excerpts of my interview with Phil Muncaster @philmuncaster

InfoSecurity Magazine Q4/2017, 4 October 2017

https://www.infosecurity-magazine.com/digital-editions/digital-edition-q4-2017/

Focus on the Firmware

A cursory look at OWASP’s IoT Security Guidance will highlight just how many elements in the IoT ecosystem could be exploited. Among others, these include the web interface, network, transport encryption layer, mobile app and device firmware. The latter is a key area of focus for the prpl Foundation, a non-profit which is trying to coral the industry into taking a new hardware-based approach to IoT security. Cesare Garlati, chief security strategist, claims that hackers could exploit IoT chip firmware to re-flash the image, allowing them to reboot and execute arbitrary code. “The issue with this kind of attack is that it gives the hackers complete control of the device and it is persistent; it can’t be undone via a system reboot, for example”, he tells Infosecurity. The answer is to ensure IoT systems will only boot up if the first piece of software to execute is cryptographically signed by a trusted entity. “It needs to match on the other side with a public key or certificate which is hard-coded into the device, anchoring the ‘Root of Trust’ into the hardware to make it tamper proof ”, says Garlati.

Read more of this post

Interview: Cesare Garlati, Chief Security Strategist, Prpl Foundation

by Contributing Editor, Infosecurity Magazine

 

In 2016, the danger posed by the Internet of Things (IoT) became a reality. Add in factors such as the Mirai botnet and industrial control systems, and the problem becomes more than just Fitbits being connected to the network.

The problem was countered with the first industry guidance in November 2016, when both the Department of Homeland Security and NIST issued documents on IoT: with the DHS advising manufacturers, services providers, developers and business-level consumers; while NIST went for more detail for manufacturers/developers with guidance on how to engineer safer products.

Read more of this post

RSA Conference 2016 – A New Hardware-Based Approach to Secure the Internet of Things

Live Demo: A New Hardware-Based Approach to Secure the Internet of Things
RSA Conference 2016 – Abu Dhabi
November 16, 2016 | 11.20 – 12.10 hrs | Level 1 | Room: Etihad Ballroom 2

rsa-2016-garlati-clip

Quick look – This session will address four key elements that have introduced serious weaknesses into the IoT: proprietary systems, connectivity, unsigned firmware and lateral movement. Discussion will showcase a new approach to IoT security demonstrating how SoC virtualization and security through separation can address these vulnerabilities, which have already been shown to have potentially life-threatening consequences.

Read more of this post

Virtualization, silicon, and open source are conspiring to secure the Internet of Things

My chat with Brandon Lewis, Technology Editor at  IoT Design, highlighting prpl’s push around roots-of-trust, virtualization, open source, and interoperability in order to secure the Internet of Things (IoT).

Credits: Brandon Lewis, IoT Design, January 28, 2016 @TechieLew

security-guidance-coverThe prpl Foundation is known for open source tools and frameworks like OpenWrt and QEMU, but has recently ventured into the security domain with a new Security prpl Engineering Group (PEG) and the “Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Embedded Computing” document, not to mention wooing you away from your role at security giant Trend Micro. What can you tell us about the drivers behind these moves?

Cesare: One way to look at it is a supply-and-demand schema. On the demand side, according to Gartner, the security market was worth $77 billion in 2015 and it’s going to grow much faster. One strong demand-side driver is the need for stronger security, because industry is not doing a very good job of it – and when I say industry I mean from silicon to software to services – and all of the spending is not resulting in better information security. Read more of this post

The Journey to a Secure Internet of Things Starts Here

IoT Security Guidance

As the Internet of Things finds its way into ever more critical environments – from cars, to airlines to hospitals – the potentially life-threatening cyber security implications must be addressed. Over the past few months, real world examples have emerged showing how proprietary connected systems relying on outdated notions of ‘security-by-obscurity’ can in fact be reverse engineered and chip firmware modified to give hackers complete remote control. The consequences could be deadly.

A new approach is needed to secure connected devices, which is exactly what the prpl Foundation is proposing in its new document: Security Guidance for Critical Areas of Embedded Computing. It lays out a vision for a new hardware-led approach based on open source and interoperable standards. At its core is a secure boot enabled by a “root of trust” anchored in the silicon, and hardware-based virtualization to restrict lateral movement.

Read more of this post

How to Fix the Internet of Broken Things

iot-securityThe Internet of Things is already permeating every part of our lives – from healthcare to aviation, automobiles to telecoms. But its security is fundamentally broken. In my previous blog I’ve shown how vulnerabilities found by security researchers could have catastrophic consequences for end users. This isn’t just about data breaches and reputational damage anymore – lives are quite literally on the line. The challenges are many: most vendors operate under the misapprehension that security-by-obscurity will do – and lobby for laws preventing the disclosure of vulnerabilities; a lack of security subject matter expertise creates major vulnerabilities; firmware can too easily be modified; and a lack of separation on the device opens up further avenues for attackers.

But there is something we as an industry can do about it – if we take a new hardware-led approach. This is all about creating an open security framework built on interoperable standards; one which will enable a “root of trust” thanks to secure boot capabilities, and restrict lateral movement with hardware-based virtualization.

Read more of this post

The Security Challenges Threatening to Tear the Internet of Things Apart

IoT SecurityThe Internet of Things (IoT) has the power to transform our lives, making us more productive at work, and happier and safer at home. But it’s also developing at such a rate that it threatens to outstrip our ability to adequately secure it. A piece of software hasn’t been written yet that didn’t contain mistakes – after all, we’re only human. But with non-security experts designing and building connected systems the risks grow ever greater. So what can be done?

Read more of this post